TOEFL Reading Test 6
(1) The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland, California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief. and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect. The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as “speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.
(2) The third style, referred to as cither “ international stripped classicism,” or simply “classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression . Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern,it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte, art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.
1. What aspect of art deco does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The influence of art deco on the design of furniture and household accessories
(B) Ways in which government programs encouraged the development of art deco
(C) Architectural manifestations of art deco during the 1920’s and 1930’s
(D) Reasons for the popularity of art deco in New York and California
2. The word “encompass” in line 1 is closest in meaning to ….
3. The phrase “The first” in line 2 refers to ….
(A) the term “art deco”
(B) design trends
(C) the 1920’s and 1930’s
4. In line 9, the author mentions “an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower ” in order to ….
(A) describe the exterior shape of certain “art deco” buildings
(B) explain the differences between ancient and modern architectural steles
(C) emphasize the extent of architectural advances
(D) argue for a return to more traditional architectural design
5. The streamlined moderne style is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT ….
(A) animal motifs
(B) flat roofs
(C) round windows
(D) “speed stripes”
6. The phrase “came to the forefront” in line 16 is closest in meaning to ….
(A) grew in complexity
(B) went through a process
(C) changed its approach
(D) became important
7. According to the passage, which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between art deco and art nouveau?
(A) They were art forms that competed with each other for government support during the Depression era.
(B) They were essentially the same art form.
(C) Art nouveau preceded art deco and influenced it.
(D) Art deco became important in the United States while art nouveau became popular in England.
8. According to the passage, a building having an especially ornate appearance would most probably have been designed in the style of ….
(A) zigzag moderne
(B) streamlined moderne
(C) classical moderne
(D) the Arts and Crafts Movement
9. According to the passage, which of the following design trends is known by more than one name ?
(A) Zigzag moderne
(B) Streamlined moderne
(C) International stripped classicism
(D) Arts and Crafts Movement
10. The passage is primarily developed as ….
(A) the historical chronology of a movement
(B) a description of specific buildings that became famous for their unusual beauty
(C) an analysis of various trends within an artistic movement
(D) an argument of the advantages of one artistic form over another