Pembahasan Soal Reading TOEFL #3

This text below is for number 1-5

In 1972, a century after the first national park in the United States was established at Yellowstone, legislation was passed to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program. The intent of this legislation was to provide protection to selected coastal habitats similar to that existing for land areas designated as national parks. The designation of an areas a marine sanctuary indicates that it is a protected area, just as a national park is. People
are permitted to visit and observe there, but living organisms and their environments may not be harmed or removed.

The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a branch of the United States Department of Commerce. Initially, 70 sites were proposed as candidates for sanctuary status. Two and a half decades later, only fifteen sanctuaries had been designated, with half of these established after 1978. They range in size from the very small (less than I square kilometer) Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary in American Samoa to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in California, extending over 15,744 square kilometers.

The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is a crucial part of new management practices in which whole communities of species, and not just individual species, are offered some degree of protection from habitat degradation and overexploitation. Only in this way can a reasonable degree of marine species diversity be maintained in a setting that also maintains the natural interrelationships that exist among these species. Several other types of marine protected areas exist in the United States and other countries.

The National Estuarine Research Reserve System, managed by the United States government, includes 23 designated and protected estuaries. Outside the United States, marine protected-area programs exist as marine parks, reserves, and preserves. Over 100 designated areas exist around the periphery of the Carbbean Sea. Others range from the well-known Australian Great Barrer Reef Marine Park to lesser-known parks in countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, where tourism is placing growing pressures on fragile coral reef systems. As state, national, and international agencies come to recognize the importance of conserving marine biodiversity, marine projected areas. whether as sanctuaries, parks, or estuarine reserves, will play an increasingly important
role in preserving that diversity.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) Differences among marine parks, sanctuaries, and reserves
(B) Various marine conservation programs
(C) International agreements on coastal protection
(D) Similarities between land and sea protected environments

Pembahasan:

Di teks diatas, kita diberikan contoh-contoh program konsevasi kelautan yang ada di sekitar Amerika Serikat. Paragraf satu menunjukkan awal mula dibuatnya inisiatif konservasi alam tersebut. Kemudian Paragraf dua memberikan deskripsi program-program yang diadministrasikan serta contoh tempat dilakukannya konservasi kelautan tersebut. Sementara Paragraf tiga memberitahukan kepentingan penggunaan program-program kelautan tersebut. Jadi, jawabannya adalah: (B) Various marine conservation programs

2. The word “intent” in line 3 is closest in meaning to ….

(A) repetition
(B) approval
(C) goal
(D) revision

Pembahasan:

Soal-soal seperti inilah mengapa bagian reading harus diutamakan dengan melihat jawaban soalnya terlebih dahulu sebelum membaca teks untuk nomor-nomor tersebut. Pada soal tersebut ‘intent’ di baris ketiga memiliki arti ‘keinginan untuk mencapai suatu tujuan’. Kata yang paling cocok merupakan ‘goal’ yang berarti ‘tujuan’. Bukan ‘repetition’ (pengulangan), ‘approval’ (pengakuan), dan ‘revision’ (pembetulan). Oleh karena itu, jawaban nomor ini adalah: (C) goal

3. The word “administered” in line 8 is closest in meaning to ….

(A) managed
(B) recognized
(C) opposed
(D) justified

Pembahasan:

Menggunakan cara yang sudah disebutkan pada nomor sebelumnya, soal nomor ini meminta kita untuk membaca soal terlebih dahulu sebelum mencari di baris keberapa kata itu dituliskan. Di baris delapan, kata ‘administered’ memiliki makna ‘dikelola’. Kata yang paling dekat maknanya dari keempat jawaban diatas adalah ‘managed’ (dikelola). Bukan ‘recognized’ (diketahui), ‘opposed’ (ditolak), dan ‘justified’ (dibenarkan). Dikarenakan hal tersebut, jawabannya adalah: (A) managed

4. The word “these” in line 11 refers to ….

(A) sites
(B) candidates
(C) decades
(D) sanctuaries

Pembahasan:

Untuk soal yang meminta kita untuk mencari relasi antar kata, kita harus mengerti dan mengetahui cara menggunakan kata ganti. Kata ‘these’ merupakan sebuah kata ganti yang menggambarkan sesuatu yang plural atau lebih dari satu, yang ada di dalam suatu teks. Pada teks tersebut, kata ‘these’ dikaitkan dengan kalimat ‘fifteen sanctuaries’. Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah: (D) sanctuaries

5. The passage mentions the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (lines 13-14) as an example of a sanctuary that ….

(A) is not well know
(B) covers a large area
(C) is smaller than the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary
(D) was not originally proposed for sanctuary status

Pembahasan:

Pada kalimat yang menjabarkan situasi antara Konservasi Kelautan Fagatele Bay dan Monterey Bay, kita bisa membaca bahwa Fagatele Bay termasuk konservasi kelautan yang cukup kecil (kurang dari 1 km kubik) dibandingkan dengan Monterey Bay yang mencakup daerah yang luas (15.744 km kubik). Oleh karena itu, jawaban dari soal ini adalah: (B) covers a large area

 

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